These can be categorized into three groups of tests Group I Tests These tests when performed give us an idea of the severity of diabetes mellitus. 1. Blood sugar (F – fasting)
Normal value: (fasting) – 70 to 110 mg/dl.
Increased glucose levels found in diabetes mellitus, liver disorders, hyperactivity of the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands.
Decreased levels found in lower activity of the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands.
2. Blood sugar (post–prandial (PP) – Two hours, after lunch.
Normal value: Up to 130 mg/dl.
Increased and decreased levels are same as above, in fasting blood sugar.
3. Urine sugar (F) 4. Urine sugar (PP)
Normal value: Absent or very small amount of 2 to 20 mg/dl present.
If the glucose stripe test is positive, then the amount of glucose is determined.
5. Urine ketone bodies
Normal value: Absent.
If present, indicates diabetes mellitus.
It is also +ve if the person is fasting (where fats are broken down to ketone bodies).
6. Blood urea nitrogen
Normal value: 7 – 23 mg/dl.
Elevated in diabetes mellitus.
Group II Tests These tests when performed gives us an idea of the disturbed lipid (fat) metabolism and atheroma (it is an abnormal condition where walls of arteries are clogged with fatty tissue). Serum (fasting) sample is required of these tests. 1. Serum total cholesterol
Normal value: 150 - 250 mg/dl.
Increased in diabetes mellitus.
2. Serum HDL cholesterol
Men = 30 – 60 mg/dl.
Women = 40 – 70 mg/dl.
3. Serum total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio
Given depending on values of the above tests.
4. Serum triglycerides
Normal range: 10 – 190 mg/dl.
Increase in diabetes mellitus.
Group III Tests These tests are performed in acidosis (a serious condition in which the body’s acid – alkali balance is disturbed) and ketosis (in this, excessive amounts of ketones are formed when fat is used instead of sugar to provide energy (Ketone is a substance which results during the breakdown of fats and fatty acids into carbon dioxide and water). These tests are done to know the acid-base balance of the body. 1. Blood pH
Normal range: 7.36 to 7.42.
2. Serum bicarbonate
Normal range: 21 – 28 mEq/1.
3. Serum sodium, potassium and chlorides
Normal serum: Sodium: 133 – 14 mEq/1.
Normal serum: Potassium: 3.8 – 5.6 mEq/1.
Normal serum: Chloride: 95 – 106 mEq/1.
Increased sodium found in Diabetes Insipidus.
Increased potassium found in Diabetes Ketoacidosis.
4. Blood gases (PCO2, PO2)
The amount of PCO2 is directly proportionate to the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood and the amount of PO2 indicates the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in the blood. The decreased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin is indicated by the elevated PO2 values.
All these tests in Group III help in determining uncontrolled diabetes with ketosis known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis. It is characterized by electrolyte imbalance, and extremely high blood sugar levels frequently resulting in coma.